2015 Annual Report


Allowance for Credit Losses: An allowance set aside which, in management’s opinion, is adequate to absorb all incurred credit-related losses in the Bank’s portfolio of loans. It includes individual and collective allowances.

Assets Under Administration and Management: Assets owned by customers, for which the Bank provides management and custodial services. These assets are not reported on the Bank’s Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.

Bankers’ Acceptances (BAs): Negotiable, short-term debt securities, guaranteed for a fee by the issuer’s bank.

Basis Point: A unit of measure defined as one-hundredth of one per cent.

Capital: Consists of common shareholders’ equity, non-cumulative preferred shares, capital instruments and subordinated debentures. It can support asset growth, provide against loan losses and protect depositors.

Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1), Tier 1 and Total Capital Ratios: Under Basel III, there are three primary regulatory capital ratios used to assess capital adequacy, CET1, Tier 1 and Total capital ratios, which are determined by dividing those capital components by their respective risk-weighted assets.

Basel III introduced a new category of capital, CET1, which consists primarily of common shareholders’ equity net of regulatory adjustments. These regulatory adjustments include goodwill, intangible assets net of deferred tax liabilities, deferred tax assets that rely on future probability, defined-benefit pension fund net assets, shortfall of credit provision to expected losses and significant investments in common equity of other financial institution.

Tier 1 includes CET1 and additional Tier 1 capital which consists primarily of qualifying non-cumulative preferred shares and non-qualifying instruments subject to phase-out. Tier 2 capital consists mainly of qualifying subordinated or non-qualifying debentures subject to phase-out and the eligible allowances for credit losses.

Total capital is comprised of CET1 capital, Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital.

Covered Bonds: Debt obligations of the Bank for which the payment of all amounts of interest and principal are unconditionally and irrevocably guaranteed by a limited partnership or trust and secured by a pledge of the covered bond portfolio. The assets in the covered bond portfolio held by the limited partnership or trust consist of first lien Canadian uninsured residential mortgages or first lien Canadian residential mortgages insured under CMHC Mortgage Insurance, respectively, and their related security interest.

Derivative Products: Financial contracts whose value is derived from an underlying price, interest rate, exchange rate or price index. Forwards, options and swaps are all derivative instruments.

Fair Value: The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants in the principal, or in its absence, the most advantageous market to which the Bank has access at the measurement date.

Foreign Exchange Contracts: Commitments to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign currency on a set date and at a predetermined rate of exchange.

Forward Rate Agreement (FRA): A contract between two parties, whereby a designated interest rate, applied to a notional principal amount, is locked in for a specified period of time. The difference between the contracted rate and prevailing market rate is paid in cash on the settlement date. These agreements are used to protect against, or take advantage of, future interest rate movements.

Futures: Commitments to buy or sell designated amounts of commodities, securities or currencies on a specified date at a predetermined price. Futures are traded on recognized exchanges. Gains and losses on these contracts are settled daily, based on closing market prices.

Hedging: Protecting against price, interest rate or foreign exchange exposures by taking positions that are expected to react to market conditions in an offsetting manner.

Impaired Loans: Loans on which the Bank no longer has reasonable assurance as to the timely collection of interest and principal, or where a contractual payment is past due for a prescribed period or the customer is declared to be bankrupt. Excludes Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) guaranteed loans.

Leverage Ratio: The ratio of Basel III Tier 1 capital to a leverage exposure measure which includes on-balance sheet assets and off-balance sheet commitments, derivatives and securities financing transactions, as defined within the OSFI Leverage Requirements Guideline.

Marked-To-Market: The valuation of certain financial instruments at fair value as of the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position date.

Core Banking Margin: This ratio represents net interest income (on a taxable equivalent basis) on average earning assets excluding bankers acceptances and total average assets relating to the Global Capital markets business within Global Banking and Markets. This is consistent with the fact that net interest from trading operations is recorded in trading revenues included in non-interest income.

Notional Principal Amounts: The contract or principal amounts used to determine payments for certain off-balance sheet instruments and derivatives, such as FRAs, interest rate swaps and cross-currency swaps. The amounts are termed “notional” because they are not usually exchanged themselves, serving only as the basis for calculating amounts that do change hands.

Off-Balance Sheet Instruments: These are indirect credit commitments, including undrawn commitments to extend credit and derivative instruments.

Operating leverage: This financial metric measures the rate of growth in total revenue (on a taxable equivalent basis) less the rate of growth in operating expenses.

Options: Contracts between buyer and seller giving the buyer of the option the right, but not the obligation, to buy (call) or sell (put) a specified commodity, financial instrument or currency at a set price or rate on or before a specified future date.

OSFI: The Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Canada, the regulator of Canadian banks.

Productivity Ratio: Management uses the productivity ratio as a measure of the Bank’s efficiency. This ratio represents operating expenses as a percentage of total revenue (TEB). A lower ratio indicates improved productivity.

Repos: Repos is short for “obligations related to securities sold under repurchase agreements” – a short-term transaction where the Bank sells assets, normally government bonds, to a client and simultaneously agrees to repurchase them on a specified date and at a specified price. It is a form of short-term funding.

Return on Equity (ROE): Net income attributable to common shareholders, expressed as a percentage of average common shareholders’ equity.

Reverse Repos: Reverse repos is short for “securities purchased under resale agreements” – a short-term transaction where the Bank purchases assets, normally government bonds, from a client and simultaneously agrees to resell them on a specified date and at a specified price. It is a form of short-term collateralized lending.

Risk-Weighted Assets: Comprised of three broad categories including credit risk, market risk and operational risk, which are computed under the Basel III Framework. Risk-weighted assets for credit risk are calculated using formulas specified by the Basel III Framework. The formulas are based on the degree of credit risk for each class of counterparty. Off-balance sheet instruments are converted to on balance sheet equivalents, using specified conversion factors, before the appropriate risk measurements are applied. The Bank uses both internal models and standardized approaches to calculate market risk capital and standardized approach to calculate operational risk capital. These capital requirements are converted to risk weighted assets equivalent by multiplying by a 12.5 factor.

Securitization: The process by which financial assets (typically loans) are transferred to a trust, which normally issues a series of different classes of asset-backed securities to investors to fund the purchase of loans.

Structured Entities: A structured entity is defined as an entity created to accomplish a narrow and well-defined objective. A structured entity may take the form of a corporation, trust, partnership or unincorporated entity. Structured entities are often created with legal arrangements that impose strict and sometimes permanent limits on the decision-making powers of their governing board, trustee or management over the operations of the entity.

Standby Letters of Credit and Letters of Guarantee: Written undertakings by the Bank, at the request of the customer, to provide assurance of payment to a third-party regarding the customer’s obligations and liabilities to that third-party.

Structured Credit Instruments: A wide range of financial products which includes Collateralized Debt Obligations, Collateralized Loan Obligations, Structured Investment Vehicles, and Asset-Backed Securities. These instruments represent investments in pools of credit-related assets, whose values are primarily dependent on the performance of the underlying pools.

Swaps: Interest rate swaps are agreements to exchange streams of interest payments, typically one at a floating rate, the other at a fixed rate, over a specified period of time, based on notional principal amounts. Cross-currency swaps are agreements to exchange payments in different currencies over predetermined periods of time.

Taxable Equivalent Basis (TEB): The Bank analyzes net interest income, non-interest income, and total revenue on a taxable equivalent basis (TEB). This methodology grosses up tax-exempt income earned on certain securities reported in either net interest income or non-interest income to an equivalent before tax basis. A corresponding increase is made to the provision for income taxes; hence, there is no impact on net income. Management believes that this basis for measurement provides a uniform comparability of net interest income and non-interest income arising from both taxable and non-taxable sources and facilitates a consistent basis of measurement. While other banks also use TEB, their methodology may not be comparable to the Bank’s methodology. For purposes of segmented reporting, a segment’s revenue and provision for income taxes are grossed up by the taxable equivalent amount. The elimination of the TEB gross up is recorded in the Other segment.

Value At Risk (VaR): An estimate of the potential loss that might result from holding a position for a specified period of time, with a given level of statistical confidence.

Yield Curve: A graph showing the term structure of interest rates, plotting the yields of similar quality bonds by term to maturity.

Basel III Glossary

Credit Risk Parameters

Exposure at Default (EAD): Generally represents the expected gross exposure – outstanding amount for on-balance sheet exposure and loan equivalent amount for off-balance sheet exposure at default.

Probability of Default (PD): Measures the likelihood that a borrower will default within a one-year time horizon, expressed as a percentage.

Loss Given Default (LGD): Measures the severity of loss on a facility in the event of a borrower’s default, expressed as a percentage of exposure at default.

Exposure Types


Corporate: Defined as a debt obligation of a corporation, partnership, or proprietorship.

Bank: Defined as a debt obligation of a bank or bank equivalent (including certain public sector entities (PSEs) treated as bank equivalent exposures).

Sovereign: Defined as a debt obligation of a sovereign, central bank, certain multi development banks and certain PSEs treated as sovereign.

Securitization: On-balance sheet investments in asset-backed securities, mortgage backed securities, collateralized loan obligations and collateralized debt obligations, off-balance sheet liquidity lines to Bank’s own sponsored and third-party conduits and credit enhancements.


Residential Mortgage:
Loans to individuals against residential property (four units or less).

Secured Lines Of Credit: Revolving personal lines of credit secured by residential real estate.

Qualifying Revolving Retail Exposures (QRRE): Credit cards and unsecured line of credit for individuals.

Other Retail: All other personal loans.

Exposure Sub-types

Outstanding amounts for loans, leases, acceptances, deposits with banks and available-for-sale debt securities.

Undrawn: Unutilized portion of an authorized committed credit lines.

Other Exposures

Repo-Style Transactions:
Reverse repurchase agreements (reverse repos) and repurchase agreements (repos), securities lending and borrowing.

OTC Derivatives: Over-the-counter derivatives contracts refers to financial instruments which are traded through a dealer network rather than through an exchange.

Other Off-balance Sheet: Direct credit substitutes, such as standby letters of credit and guarantees, trade letters of credit, and performance letters of credit and guarantees.

Exchange-Traded Derivative Contracts: Exchange-traded derivative contracts are derivative contracts (e.g., futures contracts and options) that are transacted on an organized futures exchange. These include futures contracts (both long and short positions), purchased options and written options.

Qualifying Central Counterparty (QCCP): A licensed central counterparty is considered “qualifying” when it is compliant with the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) standards and is able to assist clearing member banks in properly capitalizing for CCP exposures.

Asset Value Correlation Multiplier (AVC): Basel III has increased the risk-weights on exposures to certain Financial Institutions (FIs) relative to the non-financial corporate sector by introducing an AVC. The correlation factor in the risk-weight formula is multiplied by this AVC factor of 1.25 for all exposures to regulated FIs whose total assets are greater than or equal to US $100 billion and all exposures to unregulated FIs.

Specific Wrong-Way Risk (WWR): Specific Wrong-Way Risk arises when the exposure to a particular counterparty is positively correlated with the probability of default of the counterparty due to the nature of the transactions with the counterparty.